No, Calibre doesn't handle schematic netlists independently of layout.
Have a look to calibre documentation
This option instructs LVS to read and verify the SPICE netlist specified in the Source Path specification statement. Calibre nmLVS issues any applicable warnings or errors and writes them to the logfile. The overall results are written to the LVS Report. Calibre nmLVS reads the SPICE netlist hierarchically (as done with the -hier option) but does not generate any LVS comparison structures.
The primary status message in the LVS report is SYNTAX OK if the check succeeded or SYNTAX CHECK FAILED if the check failed.
This option cannot be used with input systems other than SPICE netlists.
Calibre nmLVS reserves a flat license when you use this option.
Calibre nmLVS exits with a non-zero status if the syntax check fails. In most UNIX shells, you can check this status by examining the $? shell variable. For example:
calibre -lvs -cs rules
if [ $? -eq 0 ]
calibre -spice layout.net rules
echo “Error in netlist!”
Thanks Jean! Guess I should have checked the docs. I'd never seen LVS used without layout.